MAKE PURIFIED WATER USING RECYCLED PLASTIC BOTTLE AND POWER OF SUN
What is water purification?
According to Wikipedia “it is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, materials, and biological contaminants from raw water. The goal is to produce water fit for a specific purpose. Most water is purified for human consumption (drinking water) … …In general the methods used include physical process such as filtration and sedimentation, biological processes such as slow sand filters or activated sludge, chemical process such as flocculation and chlorination and the use of electromagnetic radiation such as ultraviolet light.”
Among the methods mentioned above, the most and probably the cheapest way to clean water is using ultraviolet light, since we are using recycled plastic bottle, it is appropriate that we use also a renewable source of energy which is probably the most available of them all, the “SUN”.
A. Background of the study
High-quality water is defined as water that contains no pathogenic organisms and is free from biological forms that may be aesthetically objectionable. It is clear and colorless, and has no objectionable taste or odor. It does not contain concentrations of chemicals that may be physiologically harmful, aesthetically objectionable, or economically damaging. It also is not corrosive, nor does it leave excessive or undesirable deposits on water-conveying structures, including pipes, tanks, and plumbing fixtures.
Criteria used to evaluate the safety of drinking water are continually reassessed as new constituents are identified and health effects research advances. Regulatory agencies are developing standards and recommendations for contaminant levels in drinking water. Concurrently, the water supply industry is developing new and improved operation and treatment techniques to respond to the changing criteria. Drinking water quality criteria must consider all factors that affect the quality of water, the public health significance of the constituents, and the available technology to treat water.
The factors must recognize the practical aspects of design and operation and the capital cost of meeting the quality criteria. Establishing appropriate criteria, therefore, requires the combined efforts of regulatory agencies, consumers, and the water supply industry. Water resources are not geographically located to meet society’s ever changing needs. Therefore, protection and enhancement of available surface water and groundwater supplies should be a North American priority to facilitate the effectiveness of economical production of safe, adequate, and aesthetically acceptable water for domestic use. Past waste disposal practices, urbanization, and effects of some modern technology have produced negative environmental effects on water sources. Long-term health effects related to certain chemicals, organisms, and environmental conditions are not fully known. Efforts to address these effects should include governments at all levels as well as public water suppliers. The program should include water quality operating guidelines defining high-quality water. Also included should be regulatory standards that define safe water. We will harness the power of the sun to make safe clean drinking water.
B. Statement of problems/objectives
General Objectives – To be able to purify water using recycled materials and sun as a renewable source of energy.
C. Hypothesis – Is it possible to purify water using recycled plastic bottle?
Can we use the sun as the source of energy?
Is it safe for human consumption?
D. Significance of the study – This research project is important for us to know the effect of using recycled plastic bottle and power of the sun to produce clean, safe, drinking water
E. Scope and Limitation – This Project is limited only on using recycled plastic bottle and the power of the sun to produce clean, safe, drinking water.
Review of related literature
Water is essential in all the processes going on the body, without it, most of this process are related. Water issues abound throughout the world with every region having its own distinct challenges. The presence of lead in drinking water is more prevalent and serious than many people realize. Despite common perceptions, lead is not restricted to inner-city communities, but rather is a problem that affects many water systems across the country. According to an Environmental Protection Agency study released in 1993, more than 800 drinking water systems around the nation contain excessive lead. Today, the EPA estimates that more than 40 million Filipinos are exposed to potentially dangerous amounts of lead in their drinking water. Recent legislation has helped decrease the problem. In1991, the EPA imposed new standards for lead levels in drinking water that are 10 times more protective than levels previously thought to be safe. The new standard allows for a lead level of no more than 15 parts per billion (ppb). Current studies, however, show that lead levels in our drinking water continue to be too high. What’s more, new research indicates that lead may be more harmful than previously thought. This investigatory project will help many people especially the poor communities who have no access to clean drinking water.
2 pcs Recycled Plastic Water Bottle
Any kind of tape that is water proof, (mask, duct, pack)
A sunny day.
Clean 1 of the bottle, no need to clean the other one, since it will hold the dirty water that we will be purified. (if you want you can clean it too). Punch a hole in the two (2) bottle cap, to accommodate the tube, then tape both cap on each end, making sure that they are water tight. Then take one (1) of the bottle and fill it up with dirty water, put the cap, tape it to make sure it doesn’t leak. Put the other cap on the clean bottle, tape it also. Place the bottle with dirty water in an area where sun is shining; make sure that it is lower than the clean bottle. You should cover the clean bottle from the sun, making sure that it will not evaporate back, a handkerchief will do, shirt or even leaves. Wait for most of the water to evaporate into the clean bottle. (this might take many hours, depending on the temperature of the sun.) Carefully remove the clean bottle and you can now drink the fresh water in that bottle.
Results and discussion
This study focuses only if it is feasible to purify water using recycled plastic bottle and the sun as the energy. According to the experiment it is possible to do just that.
Wondering how it works? The water on other bottle will undergo the process of evaporation by the radiation of the sun, the evaporated water will be collected on the other bottle, giving you purified water.
By doing this simple procedure using recycled materials and renewable source of energy, we can purify water with less or no cost at all. It is also proven to be safe for human consumption, since evaporation using the radiation of the sun, is somewhat similar to boiling water in fire, the only difference is the quantity and the length of time.
According to WHO director, 2.5 million people die from drinking unsafe water every year. A total of 3.4 million people. mostly children, die every year from water-related diseases from drinking, swimming in or washing clothes in polluted water.
This simple, basic and DIY (Do-It-Yourself) water purification will help benefit the people in an area where safe drinking water is scarce. Since this method is highly reliable, and proven to work around the world. We can educate people in rural areas to use this method.
Further research on using this in a larger scale is needed, this method also is even more effective when the bottom half of the bottle is painted black or place on the roof with corrugated iron painted also with black help absorb more heat of the sun.
* Be careful with what you put on the dirty bottle, since on one site I visited, the food coloring they put on the water seems to be collected also on the evaporation.
Cep Students, hayzkul.blogspot.com
NATURAL DYES FROM PLANTS IN PRODUCING COLORED PASTE
Paste is a type of glue made from starch or dextrin, a starch product. This investigatory project shows that we can produce our own colored paste without spending much time and money and by performing simple steps. That’s why this Science Investigatory Project can help students save their money instead of spending it in buying expensive and commercialized colored glue. In addition, this colored paste can be an additional source of income. It’s not just affordable; it’s also safe and non-toxic because the ingredients used are starch, water, natural dyes from plants and alum. Alum is used as preservative to prolong the shelf-life of the paste. Natural dyes from plants like Annatto seeds, mayana and turmeric were tested as coloring for this paste. We can also use other coloring from plants by researching and do further study to improve the quality of this colored paste.
Background of the Study:
Nowadays our country has big problem about our economy. Everyone to solve it, but what do you think are the possible ways to prevent his crisis? I suggest that being practical is one of the solution to this problem. As students, we can be practical by using our knowledge instead of wasting our money. These projects do not need much time and money because we can make our own colored paste within a short period of time. The basic ingredients are water, alum, natural dye from plants and cassava starch. Starch glue is the general name for adhesives made from wheat, starch, potato starch, cornstarch or cassava starch modified with acids, alkalies or oxidizing agents. I used alum in this project to prolong the shelf life of the paste and also to let the paste not to be spoiled easily. The coloring that we used in this experiment is the seeds of Annatto (BIXA ORELLANA Linn). The seeds of the Annatto are used locally for coloring food. The coloring matter of the fruit, Annatto is employed commercially for coloring butter and in preparation of various polishers for russet leather. I also tested the roots of turmeric (Curcuma Longa Linn.) as coloring. The rhizomes of turmeric, or dilau, are commonly sold in the Manila markets, and are used as a condiment as ingredients of curry powder, and for coloring food and other materials.
Statement of the Problem:
This study sought to answer the following problems:
1. Can we produce colored paste out of cassava starch, water, alum and natural dyes from plants like Annatto seeds, mayana and roots of turmeric?
2. Is the proposed paste safe to use?
3. What is the best preservative that can be used in the colored paste?
1. We can produce colored paste out of cassava starch, natural dyes from plants like Annatto seeds, mayana and roots of turmeric, alum and water.
2. The proposed paste is safe to use.
3. Alum is the best preservative for colored paste.
Significance of the Study:
The significance of the study I that we can produce colored paste without wasting much time and money. For example, your house is very far from the bookstore and there is no available colored glue in the store near to your house and you need to design a birthday card. You can produce colored paste instead of traveling very far from your house to the bookstore just to buy expensive colored glues. This project can help not only students but also those who don’t have permanent job because it can be additional source of income.
Objective of the Study:
The objectives of this study are:
1. To make a cheaper colored paste.
2. To make a non toxic and safe paste.
3. To lessen the burden of the students who undergo financial difficulties on how to budget their money.
Scope and Delimitations:
This Study has the following scope and delimitations:
1. This study used only Annatto seeds, mayana and turmeric as the coloring.
In my first experiment, I used the leaves of mayana as coloring but the color varied after one day. I have already tried to use flowers as coloring but the paste hardens because I put it in the jar without waiting for it to cool.
2. This is produced only to have instant colored paste.
Review of Related Literature:
Starch may be further processed into such products as dextrin.
Starch glue is the general name for adhesives made from wheat starch, potato starch, or cassava starch modified with acids, alkalies, or oxidizing agents, it has poor resistance to moisture.
Commercial is obtained from the starch of tapioca, maize and sweet potatoes.
The halogen elements (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine) also serve as oxidizing agents. When chloride combines with sodium chloride or common salt, the sodium atoms give up electron to the chloride atoms.
A salt is derived from an acid when one or more hydrogen atoms of the acid are replaced by one or more metal ions positively charged radicals.
Alkalies are usually salts or hydroxide of sodium potassium, lithium or ammonia.
The seeds of the Annatto tree are used locally for coloring food. The coloring matter of the fruit, Annatto, is employed commercially for coloring butter and in the preparation of various polishers for russet leather.
The rhizomes of turmeric, or dilau, are commonly sold in Manila markets, and are used as condiments as an ingredients of curry powder, and for coloring food and other materials.
Turmeric is one of the best-known material dyes. Being used for dyeing silk, wool and cotton.
Alumina is used to make abrasive and high-temperature refraction’s, ceramics and glass.
Heated Alumina has a porous structure that easily absorbs moisture and vapors.
Alumina compounds produce alums are used for waterproofing fabrics and as the antiperspirant commercial deodorant.
Definition of Terms:
Paste – a type of glue made from starch or dextrin, a starch product.
Dextrin – a gummy substance used primarily in making adhesives.
Rhizomes – a fleshy horizontal underground stem of some perennial herbs.
Alkali – in chemistry, alkali generally refers to any strongly basic compound.
Annatto – (BIXA ORELLANA Linn) English name: Annatto tagalong name: Atsuete.
Alum – any of a group of compounds that contain the sulfates of two different
Metals – aluminum is often of the metals – and water of hydration.
Materials and Equipment to be used:
First you must prepare all the materials needed. After preparing, extract the coloring. If you will use leaves, extract it by sleeping it into half cup of hot water. If roots of turmeric will be used as coloring, grind it in the mortar and pestle then cover with half cup of hot water. And if you will use Annatto seeds, extract it by covering with half cup of hot water. After extracting separate the dye from the solid particles by pouring it to the strainer. Add 2 teaspoon of alum into the coloring in a bowl. Add 3 teaspoon of cassava starch. Heat the casserole in the stove and pour the solution if the casserole is already hot. Stir until it becomes sticky. If it is sticky enough remove the casserole in the stove and wait for it to cool. If it hot anymore, you can transfer it in the container.
Data to be controlled:
This study needs only to produce a colored paste that is why no data will be collected. This only need to describe the product produced.
Presentation and Analysis of Data:
1. Observation in Coloring Used
Coloring Used Observation
Annatto seeds The color did not fade
Mayana leaves The color faded after 1 day
Roots of Turmeric The color did not fade
The table shows that Annatto seeds and roots of Turmeric can be used to produce colored paste. The mayana leaves can be used but faded after one day.
2. Observations in Preservatives used to prolong the shelf life of the paste.
Alum (tawas) Still sticky after four days and not spoiled yet dries up easily.
Oil Spoiled after one day
Salt Less sticky after four days not spoiled yet. Do not drive up easily
The table shows that tawas or alum is the best preservative for colored paste.
We can produce colored paste by using cassava starch, water, alum and natural dyes from plants. Alum is the best preservative for paste. In this project, Annatto seeds and roots of turmeric plant was the best coloring. Through this Science Investigatory Project, we can produce affordable and safe paste because the ingredients used were not having toxic chemicals. This project can be an additional source of income for those who don’t have permanent job. And also, it can help students to produce their own paste instead of buying high priced and commercialized colored glues.
After the study had been done, the following conclusions were made.
1. We can produce a colored paste out of natural dyes from Annatto seeds, mayana leaves and roots of turmeric.
2. The produced paste is safe to use since it does not contain any toxic chemicals.
3. The tawas or alum is the best preservative for colored paste.
The following recommendation was given
1. Perform further study in producing other color of the colored paste using other plants.
2. Test other preservatives to lengthen the shelf life of the colored paste.
3. Do further study to improve the quality of the colored paste made.
whats up guys!
Hair loss is a problem that faces millions of people, including men, women and even children. Aloe Vera has been used by many different cultures to stimulate hair growth, and it is safe, natural and affordable. It’s no secret that Aloe Vera is good for your hair and scalp. If you are suffering from excessive hair loss, reducing the amount of chemicals you put in your hair is an important first step.
Use aloe Vera gel to treat the areas of the scalp that are going bald. Aloe Vera contains an enzyme that helps promote new hair growth for some people. The gel can be applied directly to the scalp, as aloe Vera typically has no side effects.
Sampaguita, the national flower of the Philippines, It’s fragrance can be a bit cloying in a small space like an automobile, hanging from the rear-view mirror… but out in a natural setting like a garden, an occasional whiff of sweet scent drifting over from a large flowering bush is most pleasant, the researcher will use the Sampaguita extract as a fragrant to Aloe Vera extract.
Long before modern medicines and Western curative methods herbal medicines had been widely used in the Philippines. The use of herbal supplements for medicinal purposes has increased dramatically over the past years. If used correctly, many herbs are considered safer than conventional medications.
During this time of economic crisis, it’s time to circle the wagons and consider some measures to carry on. This investigatory project is intended to use Aloe Vera extract as a hair grower and Sampaguita flower extract as fragrant. Using this plants which is easy to find in the neighborhood the researcher will create a hair grower which is cheap and easy, and of course herbal.
Significance of the Study:
The researcher will aim to produce a hair grower without spending money and just a little of a time. People with hair loss will benefit from this study, not only it will help them treat hair problem it will also help them save money by not spending much on a commercially produce hair grow product in the market, which also reduce the amount of chemical that they put on their scalp. On the other hand it will also help them reap some additional income if they decided to sell some for the other.
Statement of the Problem:
This study should answer the following problems:
Does the experiment work?
What will happen if we combine the extract of Sampaguita and aloe Vera.
Can we really produce a hair grower out of aloe Vera and Sampaguita as a fragrant?
The experiment proves to be successful, in a fact that curative effects of this herb has been handed down from generation to generation by the traditional healers. Since the Aloe Vera extract are proven to be effective it will encourage more people to use it if the smell is also good, and we achieve that by using Sampaguita flower extract as fragrant.
We can produce a hair grower out of Aloe Vera and Sampaguita flower extract.
Objective of the Study:
The objectives of the study are:
To make hair grower cost-effective.
To make a safe and herbal hair grower.
To help people with hair lost problem.
Materials and equipments to be used.
Place the Aloe Vera leaves in the mortar (bowl) in small quantities; Use some downward pressure over the leaves with the pestle (pounder); Turn the pestle in a circular motion around the mortar, maneuvering it back and forth with a bit of pressure over still unbroken pieces. Use the strainer or a clean cotton cloth to get the Aloe Vera extract, repeat the procedure again for the Sampaguita flower, then put some Sampaguita extract on Aloe Vera extract in accordance to the desired scent. Put it in a clean bottle for future use. To use, just rub it on an area where you want hair to grow.
Scope and Delimitations:
This study has the following scopes and delimitations.
This study only used aloe Vera and Sampaguita. In our observations, the aloe Vera is very effective as a hair grower. The effect seems to be effective after weeks of use, but immediately after you apply on the scalp, you will feel that the area are thicker than the untreated area of a scalp.
Sampaguita flower extract is used as a fragrant.
Producing Aloe Vera extract as cheep and safe alternative hair grower.
Review of Related Literature:
According to ehealthMD the medical term for hair loss is alopecia, there are different classification of alopecia, alopecia areata, is a disease in which well-defined bald patches occur. Alopecia totalis, is an uncommon condition in which all hair on the scalp is lost. The cause is unknown. Alopecia universalis, is a total loss of hair on all parts of the body. Androgenetic alopecia is balding caused by heredity. Most people routinely lose between 70 and 150 hairs from their scalp each day, mainly through washing, brushing and combing, scalp hair starts to thin when more hair are lost through normal shedding that the scalp is able to renew. About 40% of the density of scalp hair has to be lost before thinning of the hair becomes noticeable.
Hair loss can be caused by:
Heredity. Most balding is caused by a genetic predisposition – in other words it’s part of a person’s genetic makeup. The sometimes, illness, certain physical conditions, or their treatments. This can include high fever, thyroid disease, childbirth, inadequate protein in the diet, iron deficiency, cancer treatments, the use of certain medications, and other causes.
Aloe Vera : According to ezinearticles.com, Aloe Vera has been used by Native Americans, Indians and many in the Caribbean to promote healthy hair and prevent hair loss. Aloe’s can help the scalp by healing it and balancing the pH level of the scalp while cleansing the pores. A common preparation of Aloe Vera gel with a small amount of wheat germ oil and coconut milk is used as a shampoo and has traditionally shown great benefit.
Sampaguita : Juvy (author of the http://theflowerexpert.com) say, It’s known by a million other names: Jasmine sambac, Arabian jasmine, pikake, mogra, kampupot, melati, mallipu…but to me, that flower is Sampaguita, and I refuse to know it by any other name. Sampaguita is considered as a symbol of fidelity, purity, devotion, strength and dedication. In the Philippines, the Sampaguita is called by various names: sambac, sampaguna, campopot, lumabi, kulatai, pongo, malur and manul. The name Sampaguita is a Spanish term that comes from the Filipino words “sumpa kita,” which mean “I promise you.”
Definitions and Terms:
Aloe Vera – Aloe vera (syn A. barbadensis Mill., A. vulgaris Lam.) is a species of Aloe, native to northern Africa. It is a stemless or very short-stemmed succulent plant growing to 80-100 cm tall, spreading by offsets and root sprouts. The leaves are lanceolate, thick and fleshy, green to grey-green, with a serrated margin. The flowers are produced on a spike up to 90 cm tall, each flower pendulous, with a yellow tubular corolla 2-3 cm long..
Sampaguita – It is an evergreen vine or shrub reaching up to 1-3 m tall. The leaves are opposite or in whorls of three, simple (not pinnate, like most other jasmines), ovate, 4-12.5 cm long and 2-7.5 cm broad. The flowers are produced in clusters of 3-12 together, strongly scented, with a white corolla 2-3 cm diameter with 5-9 lobes. The flowers open at night, and close in the morning. The fuit is a purple-black berry 1 cm in diameter.
Data to be Collected:
This study only needs to produce hair grower out of Aloe Vera and Sampaguita extract, so no data will be collected. It only needs to describe the procedure.
After the study had been done, the following conclusion was made.
We can make a hair grower out of aloe Vera and Sampaguita extract.
The produced hair grower is safe to use for the reason that it doesn’t contain any chemical.
The Sampaguita is one of the finest flowers to make the hair grower smell good.
The following recommendation was given.
Study all about hair lost and the effect of herbal hair grower.
Investigatory Project created by CEP students
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“The effect of antidesma bunius extract to a person with urinary track infection”
Urinary tract infections are a serious health problem affecting millions of people each year. Infections of the urinary tract are the second most common type of infection in the body. Women are especially prone to UTIs for reasons that are not yet well understood. One woman in five develops a UTI during her lifetime. UTIs in men are not as common as in women but can be very serious when they do occur.
This research project shows that we can produce a herbal medicine out of Bignay fruits for Urinary track infections. That we can produce this particular medicine with limited financial cost and little of our time. Because this particular remedy are made of natural fruit extract from bignay (antidesma bunius), it is safe to use. The fruit extract of this fruit has a cytotoxic properties, which could help for person with urinary track infections and other intestinal problems.
II – Introduction:
Background of the Study
With the world now facing global recession, economy is always a big issue. Government spend considerable amount of money to solve it, but what do you think is a possible and easiest way to prevent this crisis? During this crisis, health is always a wealth. But sometimes health related problems cannot be avoided, and medicine are not cheap. But there are always another side of the story, good news is that the use of herbal supplements for medicinal purposes has increased dramatically over the past years. If used correctly, many herbs are considered safer than conventional medications.
The researcher will try to create herbel remedy for Urinary Track Infection using the extract of the natural fruit of Bignay, antidesma bunius as scientific name, that contains cytotoxicity to help person with urinary track infections.
Statement of the Problem:
This study sought to answer the following problems:
Significance of the Study:
We can produce herbal medicine for person with urinary track infections with limited financial cost and little of our time. If it happens that you have a tree of bignay or in your neighborhood, you can produce a herbal medicine for urinary track infections, instead of buying some expensive commercial medicine for that particulary sickness. This research are focus to help anybody to cure urinary track infections.
Objective of the Study:
The objectives of this study are:
Scope and Delimitation:
1. This study used only natural fruits of bignay as the herbal medicine.
2. This is only produced to have a herbal medicine for urinary tract infections and other intestinal problems.
III – Review of Related Literature:
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) as define by the Wikipedia.org is a bacterial infection that affects any part of the urinary tract. Although urine contains a variety of fluids, salts, and waste products, it usually does not have bacteria in it. When bacteria get into the bladder or kidney and multiply in the urine, they cause a UTI. The most common type of UTI is a bladder infection which is also often called cystitis. Another kind of UTI is a kidney infection, known as pyelonephritis, and is much more serious.
According to the National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NKUDIC), Urinary Tract Infections are serious health problem affecting millions of people each year. Infections of the urinary tract are the second most common type of infection in the body. Urinary Track Infections (UTIs) account for about 8.3 million doctor visit each year. Women are especially prone to UTIs for reasons that are not yet well understood. One woman in five develops a UTI during her lifetime. UTIs in men are not as common as in women but can be very serious when they do occur.
What are the causes of UTI?
Normally, urine is sterile. It is usually free of bacteria, viruses, and fungi but does contain fluids, salts, and waste products. An infection occurs when tiny organisms usually bacteria from the digestive tract cling to the opening of the urethra and begin to multiply. Most infections arise from one type of bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli), which normally lives in the colon. Microorganisms called Chlamydia and Mycoplasma may also cause UTIs in both men and women, but these infections tend to remain limited to the urethra and reproductive system.
Who is at risk?
Some people are more prone to getting a UTI than others. People with diabetes have a higher risk of a UTI because of changes in the immune system. Any other disorder that suppress the immune system raises the risk of a urinary infection. UTIs may occur in infants, both boys and girls, who are born with abnormalities of the urinary tract, which sometimes need to be corrected with surgery. UTIs are more rare in boys and young men. In adult women though, the rate of UTIs gradually increase with age.
IV – Materials and Methods
Materials and Equipment to be used:
Prepare all the materials needed. Wash the fruit of bignay and remove the seed by using the strainer. Then, get one teaspoon of the extract and drink it, you can also make a juice by using this extract. Drink it three times a day, after every meal.
V – Results and Discussion:
Taste of extracted bignay Observation
Pure extract Sour
With water Less sour
With Sugar Sweet
According to the table above, it shows that the pure extract of bignay (antidesma bunius) has a sour taste, and it will taste less sour if you add water, and if you want to it to be undemanding to swallow then you can add some sugar.
After the study had been done, the following conclusion were made;
1. We can produce a herbal medicine out of the extract of natural fruits of bignay for the person with urinary track infections.
2. The herbal medicine is safe to use.
3. The extract of bignay contains cytotoxicity, it can help the person with urinary track infection.
The following recommendation were given;
1. Use extract of bignay to help you to your problem about intestinal problems, like urinary track infections.
2. Do further study to improve the quality of herbal medicine made.
This research aims to determine the ideal amount of quality effect for using anti – oxidant by getting the extract of lemon grass. The lemon grasses were chopped at the constant size and pressured afterwards and were tested for their physical appearance and affectivity. After the preliminary test in finding out the best insulator for the making of anti – oxidant out of extract lemon grass. 46 people were tested in different conditions in their body. Every 3 days, a batch of 4 280ml bottles of anti – oxidant were released from the researcher, tested and observed. After 2 weeks of testing, a conclusion was made that the most number of people, resulted in good effect are about 33 people.
Table of Contents:
I:Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .i
Statement of the problem . . . . . . . . . . . ii
Hypothesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
Scope and limitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv
Definition of terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v
RRL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi
Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
Results and discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii
Conclusion and Recommendation . . . . . ix
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x
I would like to thank my parents for helping me to finish this investigatory project. To my friends who also helped me morally in this project. And of course to our hevenly Almighty God,who gave me knowledge and strenght for this investigatory project.
A. Background of the study -Lemon grasses are much known as one of the ingredients in cooking vian. Lemon grass refers to the green plants, called producers. Although not all producers have green colors, there are thousands of colors of species that do. All lemon grass have the same kind of leaves.Lemon grass is one of the herbal medical plant typing made up only one distinct layer. This layer which is made up of mineral called phosphate.Lemon grass contains mineral phosphate. This mineral is continent used as anti – oxidant that has each own essential function in terms to heal the body pain. People used these for its body healing.In this study, researchers study more about lemon grass that can give contribution in healing body pains. The purpose of this study is to find out and to determine the effect of extract lemon grass as anti – oxidant to the affected part of the body.
B. Statement of the problem -
General Objectives * To produce the oil ointment (anti – oxidant) out of extract lemon grass. * To find out possible effect of extract lemon grass on the body pain. – Specific Objectives This study aims to answer the following query: * Can extract lemon grass be made into an anti – oxidant? * Is there a significant effect of using this kind of anti – oxidant?
C. Hypothesis * Extract lemon grass can be made into an anti – oxidant. * There is a significant effect of using this kind of anti – oxidant.
D. Significance of the study – This research project is important in order for us to know whether or not extract lemon grass as anti – oxidant may heal the affected part of the human body.
E. Scope and Limitation – This project is limited only on the effect of extract lemon grass as anti – oxidant (oil ointment). This is to determine the amount of extract lemon grass to be used as anti – oxidant to the human body. It does not involve comparison between the extract lemon grass and the commercial one as anti – oxidant.
F. Definition of terms -* Extract – obtain (a substance or resource) from something by a special method. * Ointment – a smooth oily substance that is rubbed on the skin for medicinal purpose. * Anti – oxidant – a substance that prevents or inhibit oxidation.* Producer – first and lowest trophic level. * Energy – the strength and vitality required for sustained activity. * Phosphate – a salt or ester of phosphoric acid.
Review of Related Literature – Studies Anti – oxidant is one of the common medicine instrument items of coast in healing the body pain. People need medicine for healing, maintenance of health, activity, body comfortable and conditioning. The constituents of anti – oxidant that may aid in support of human health is called the body conditioning. Water is essential in all the processes going on the body, without it, most of this process are related. Herbal medicine can be found in water, extract of green plants, leaves of plants and roots. It functionally supplies the materials needed for the conditioning of tissues and bones. The fore muscle, skin, brain, blood and internal organs are made up of principally of exercising. Body exercising furnishes materials that supply heat and energy. Medicines are essential for the well being at the individual. (Betaizar, EM. Companions, GP. 1981)Medicines are the most important constituents of human health. These essential elements are required for proper metabolic function of the body. The amount required in using the medicine depends upon the signal amount of illness. Extract lemon grass form an excellent supply of oil ointment. This material furnishes material for healing the body pain.Extract lemon grasses are calciferous secretions, although those of certain ointment species are composed of lemon grass, phosphate, oil, or siliceous materials. Phosphate are salt derive from phosphoric acid, H PO . It is used in the production of medicines, fertilizers, detergent, feed supplement and insecticides. (Dana, J.P. and ES. 1951).Phosphates are important to metabolism in both plants and animals including the human being. It can be found in bones and skin. (Encarta Encyclopedia)Extract lemon grasses (oil ointment) are used to make helper machine in some parts of the body. They are oily, liquid, cold to make line for medicine and for use in human body pain. (Douglas J.C. etal 1989).Extract lemon grass certain phosphate an essential oil ointment to affected part of the body. It is most abundant liquid element in human and is necessary to build strong and comfortable skin or muscular system. It also occurs in body fluid and cells, where it clothing, transmission of nerve impulses and stimulation of many body reaction. (New Standard Encyclopedia)Extract lemon grass could be used as anti – oxidant. Extract lemon grass is a drought – tolerant legume primarily produced in North Texas and South western Oklahoma. A large oil ointment company has moved and since oil ointment required a high quality medicine, the research Texas R and M developed this product into an anti –oxidant to affected part of the body acceptable to the human. (Dr. John Sij.)3. Chapter III Methodology A. Materials: 2 kg. of chopped dry and fresh lemon grass½ kg. of oil1 strainer, electric stove, pot, knife1 ladle, mug, basin (circumference of 150 cm.) B. Procedure: * Collection of Lemon GrassesAll the materials needed for the study were gathered. The gathered lemon grasses were washed and dried up under the heat of the sun. The dried lemon grasses were chopped with the use of a knife. 2 (two) kilograms of chopped dried and fresh lemon grasses were weighed for the entire study. * Preparation of Extract Lemon GrassIn preparing lemon grass, the lemon grass must be 2 kilograms. After getting the extract of lemon grass, mixed it in the boiled oil in the pot. * UsingFour bottles were made for the entire study. In first bottle, seventy – five (75) grams of commercial efficascent and twenty – five (25) grams of extract lemon grass were given to the second treatment. In third bottle, twenty –five (25) of commercial efficascent and seventy –five (75) grams of extract lemon grass were given to the third treatment. The forth bottle served as control, meaning there was no additional of extract lemon grass.
Results and Discussions – Table 1.1 The quality of oil ointment with different proportions of extract lemon grasses and commercial efficascent in first trial. Quality 25% 25% 25% 25% 75% C.E. 75% C.E. 75% C.E. 75% C.E. Initial Weight 100 100 100 100 1st day 305 260 295 295 4th day 405 415 430 495 7th day 530 590 650 760 10th day 785 835 850 1050 Differences 685 735 750 950 Table 2.1 Table for the first trial Sum of People tested D.F Mean people tested M-T-W-6 10.595 3 17.865 T-W-6 20.000 16 23.275 TOTAL 30.595 19 6.005.
Recommendation – More test should be done on the extract lemon grass anti – oxidant including physical appearance content tests, and using of an instron puncture test machine to test the quality effect, instead of using the hand on touch sense used in this research.A more controlled variable for making the (oil ointment) anti – oxidant out of extract lemon grass should be used.